tharealsydshady:

bakrua:

bewbin:

Why do people drink alcohol it tastes disgusting

you don’t drink it for the taste. u drink shit like apple juice for the taste. you drink alcohol to get rid of the bad taste that every awful person in your life has left

Oh my
God

(via okinowa)

Twin study suggests language delay due more to nature than nurture

neurosciencestuff:

A study of 473 sets of twins followed since birth found that compared with single-born children, 47 percent of 24-month-old identical twins had language delay compared with 31 percent of nonidentical twins. Overall, twins had twice the rate of late language emergence of single-born children. None of the children had disabilities affecting language acquisition.

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The results of the study were published in the June 2014 Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research.

University of Kansas Distinguished Professor Mabel Rice, lead author, said that all of the language traits analyzed in the study—vocabulary, combining words and grammar—were significantly heritable with genes accounting for about 43 percent of the overall twins’ deficit.

The “twinning effect” — a lower level of language performance for twins than single-born children — was expected to be comparable for both kinds of twins, but was greater for identical twins, said Rice, strengthening the case for the heritability of language development.

“This finding disputes hypotheses that attribute delays in early language acquisition of twins to mothers whose attention is reduced due to the demands of caring for two toddlers,” Rice said. “This should reassure busy parents who worry about giving sufficient individual attention to each child.”

However, said Rice, prematurity and birth complications, more common in identical twins, could also affect their higher rates of language delay. A study of pregnancy and birth risks for late talking in twins is currently under way by the study authors.

Further, the study will continue at least until 2017 to continue to follow the twins through preschool and school years up to adolescence to answer the question of whether late-talking twins do catch up to their peers.

“Twin studies provide unique opportunities to study inherited and environmental contributions to language acquisition,” Rice said. “The outcomes inform our understanding of how these influences contribute to language acquisition in single-born children as well.”

Late language emergence means that a child’s language is below age and gender expectations in the number of words they speak and combining two or more words into sentences. In this study, 71 percent of 2-year-old twins were not combining words compared with 17 percent of single-born children.

While previous behavioral genetics studies of toddlers have largely focused on vocabulary, the researchers introduced an innovative measure of early grammatical ability on the correct use of the past tense and the “to be” and “to do” verbs. The measure was inspired by the Rice/Wexler Test of Early Grammar Impairment, developed in 2001 by Rice and Kenneth Wexler, Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor. It was the first test to detect the subtle but common language disorder, specific language impairment.

Rice’s collaborators in the international longitudinal project that began in 2002 are Professors Cate Taylor and Stephen Zubrick from the Telethon Kids Institute in Perth, Western Australia, and Professor Shelley Smith at the University of Nebraska Medical Center.

The study population is located in the vicinity of Perth, Western Australia, because it is demographically identical to Kansas City and several other U.S. Midwestern states. But in Australian health records are available, and the Western Australia Twin Registry is a unique resource for researchers since it is a record of all multiple births, Rice said.

The research group has followed the development of 1,000 sets of Western Australian twins from their first words. In 2012, the group was granted $2.8 million by the National Institute for Deafness and Other Communication Disorders for a fourth five-year-cycle that will enable researchers to continue to monitor the twins as they develop through adolescence. In addition to formal language tests, researchers have collected genetic and environmental data as well as assessments with the twins’ siblings.

grubsludge:

funk-dabble:

littleleahlamb2k14:

grubsludge:

bury me in armor so I’ll be ready for the skeleton war

image

ready

why is his fricking chest uncovered? that’s ppor planning right there

what are you gonna do?

stab a skeleton in the heart?

(via the-dalek-in-221b)

"We praise people for being “naturally” smart, too, “naturally” athletic, and etc. But studies continue to show, as they have for some time now, that it is generally healthier to praise schoolchildren for being hardworking, than for being naturally gifted. We know now that to emphasize a child’s inherent ability places pressure on that child to continue to be accidentally talented, which is something that is hard for anyone to control. When the children who are applauded for their natural skills fail, they are shown to take the failure very personally. After all, the process of their success has always seemed mysterious and basic and inseparable from the rest of their identity, so it must be they who are failing as whole people. When students are instead complimented and rewarded for their effort and improvement, they tend to not be so hard on themselves. When they fail, they reason, “Well, I’ll work harder next time.” They learn that they are capable of success, rather than constantly automatically deserving of it, and they learn simultaneously that they are bigger and more complex than their individual successes or failures."

Kate of Eat the Damn Cake, The Stupidity of “Natural” Beauty  (via commovente)

(Source: eatthedamncake.com, via statusinsomnia)